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How to maintain rechargeable batteries

How to maintain rechargeable batteries

Charging of rechargeable batteries has always been the focus of people's attention. Correct and good charging methods can ensure the life of batteries. There are many kinds of charging methods recommended by rechargeable batteries. Different charging methods have different requirements for the circuit of charger, which naturally affects the cost.
Memory effect is a natural enemy of rechargeable batteries, which is generally believed to be caused by long-term incorrect charging. It can make batteries premature aging. Memory effect can make the battery unable to charge effectively, and the phenomenon that once it is fully charged, it will run out. The way to prevent the memory effect of the battery is to ensure the principle of "sufficient luminescence" of the battery. That is to say, it is better to discharge the residual electricity in the battery before charging and to charge it adequately once. Usually, nickel-cadmium batteries are prone to memory effect, so special attention should be paid when charging. Nickel-hydrogen batteries do not have memory effect in theory, but it is better to follow the principle of "sufficient luminescence", which is why many chargers provide additional discharge functions. For batteries whose capacity decreases due to memory effects, we can repeat them several times through one-time sufficient and one-time luminescence. Most batteries can be repaired. For some batteries that have been shelved for a long time and have lost their activity, we can try to activate them by means of high current impulse.
The relationship between the charging time and the charging current is that the battery capacity is divided by the charging current to get the charging time. Considering the loss during charging, the calculated charging time is multiplied by the constant of 1.2.
For nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries, the most commonly used simple charging method is constant current charging with 10% C, also known as "slow charging". That is to say, the charging current is determined according to 10% of the current capacity value. For a batteries with nominal capacity of 500 mAH, its recommended charging current is 50 MA; for a batteries with nominal capacity of 1300 mAH, its recommended charging current is 130MA. Charging continuously for 12 to 15 hours at this current can be regarded as full. Although constant current charging is recommended, the requirement is not strict and the current is allowed to fluctuate greatly. Therefore, the structure of charger made by this method is very simple. Generally, only one transformer, diode for rectification, resistance for current limiting and some light emitting diodes are needed to convert 220V electricity into suitable low voltage. The cost is very low, and most of them are unique in the market.  Vertical conventional chargers use this method, but the shape is different. "Slow charging" is relatively simple, but it takes more than ten hours to charge one time, which is really a bit impatient. Battery manufacturers also allow users to charge batteries for 4-5 hours with 30% C of current when they are in urgent need, which is called "fast charging", but it is not recommended to be commonly used. In theory, there is slight damage to batteries.  Therefore, most conventional chargers have "fast charging" and "slow charging" two gears, and users are advised to use "slow charging".
In many cases, users need to charge batteries quickly, effectively and safely, and fast charging requires a larger current. The polarization effect occurs during the charging process of the battery at high current, which makes the battery heated, and when the current is high, the polarization effect occurs.
When the rechargeable batteries are full, if they are not stopped in time, the batteries will quickly heat up, which can lead to battery burning and explosion in serious cases.  Therefore, the fast charger is required to have the function of full self-stop, but also to solve the polarization effect, so as to make the charging efficient and safe. Early fast chargers used simple timing charging, but such chargers had strong pertinence and unsatisfactory charging effect.  Modern chargers use special charging control IC to charge batteries with high frequency pulsating current to solve polarization effect. They can accurately judge whether the batteries are full or not by detecting the battery-V, and provide protection measures such as temperature protection and additional functions such as discharge.  However, the structure of this charger is relatively complex, and the cost is relatively high. It is generally used for high-end communication equipment and electrical appliances such as mobile phones and walkie-talkies.
There are many types of rechargeable batteries on the market. Taking No. 5 battery as an example, the capacity of rechargeable batteries is 500 MAH, 600 MAH, 700 MAH, 850 MHA, 1200 MAH, 1300 MAH, etc. From the above 10% C "slow charging" principle, we can understand that different capacity batteries need different charging currents. Some general-purpose chargers on the market are mostly designed for early 500 MAH and 600 MAH batteries. The charging current is between 60 and 70 mA. It takes longer to charge larger capacity batteries. The actual charging current can be measured with a multimeter at first, and then the charging time can be obtained by dividing the battery capacity by the charging current multiplied by the coefficient of 1.2. For Ni-MH batteries charging more than 1000 mAH, we can try to use ordinary charger for fast charging. Because of the large current, the actual charging current can be measured by multimeter. If the value is close to the charge current of 10% C, the charging current of Ni-MH batteries will be skewed. In fact, many so-called nickel-hydrogen battery chargers on the market are just conventional chargers with larger charging current.
There are two main types of chargers for sale in the market: special charger and general charger. The so-called special type is charged with an electrical integrated battery block, typically a mobile phone charger. This kind of charger is generally suitable for the products of the original assembly set. First, the charging voltage of the model counterpart (with a special charging adapter) corresponds to that of other chargers. Second, most of these chargers adopt efficient fast charging mode with high working efficiency. The biggest advantage of compatible special charger made in China is its low price. However, due to different internal lines of manufacturers and different charging modes, many products use simple electronic circuits to reduce costs. The charging effect is not good and the internationally recommended charging method is not adopted. If you buy a domestic charger, you should not buy it.

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